This agreement, published in April 2002, is not a binding instrument, but includes two model bilateral agreements. A large number of bilateral agreements have been based on this agreement (see below). Tax Information Exchange Agreements (TIEAs) provide for the exchange of information on request concerning a criminal or civil tax investigation or civil tax matters under investigation.  A TIEA model was developed by the OECD Global Forum Working Group on Effective Exchange of Information. The implementation of the AIA standard at the global level is essential to effectively combat tax evasion and ensure that countries are on a fair basis and do not provide specific benefits to taxpayers due to their non-participation. The task of reaching international consensus and finding solutions to tax transparency and exchange of information can only be considered complete if it is implemented and used to its advantage by the international community. The Global Forum has published the 2019 AIA Implementation Report to provide comprehensive and up-to-date information on the status of AIA implementation. In addition to the exchange of information, the parties to the multilateral convention may receive assistance in the collection of tax and the service of documents. However, in accordance with its reservations, Canada is not obliged to provide assistance to another country for the collection of tax or the service of documents. In addition, the FACTA and CRS models need to be better coordinated. The United States has not yet subscribed to the AIA standard and has instead chosen to base its data exchange relationships on fatca.
The requirements of THE CRS and FATCA differ in a number of aspects, making governments and financial institutions more burdens. Because the United States may not disclose information about accounts held by residents of all jurisdictions, such accounts cannot be disclosed for tax purposes in the country of residence. Convergence and reproducibility of the two models are necessary. Since October 2016, many countries have completed the notification procedure required by the Multilateral Competent Authority Convention on the Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information. As of 5 April 2018, more than 2,700 bilateral exchanges have been activated between jurisdictions, with a view to establishing a timetable for 2017 or 2018. In the case of Canada, until 9 December 2019 63 Automatic bilateral exchanges with other legal systems under this Agreement and 51 under the Convention of the Competent Multilateral Authorities on the Automatic Exchange of Country Reports. The automatic exchange of information with the United States under FATCA has been effective since 1 January 2015. The robust peer review process of the Global Forum has enabled the rapid implementation of the EOIR standard.
The Global Forum`s 10th Anniversary Report states that Global Forum members have received more than 250,000 requests for information in 10 years and annual numbers are rising almost everywhere. EOIR alone has recovered nearly €7.5 billion in additional tax revenue. While in 2012 and 2013 the Global Forum conducted rapid peer reviews to ensure the implementation of the EOIR standard, there was an increased demand to raise the bar and make automatic exchange of information the new global standard. In 2013, following the introduction of FATCA, which introduced the automatic exchange of tax information between the United States and several countries (including major European countries and Canada), the OECD began developing a Common Reporting Standard (CRS) for the automatic exchange of financial account information. In 2014, more than fifty countries and countries signed the Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement (MCAA CRS), an international framework agreement allowing for the automatic exchange of tax information according to the Common Reporting Standard. . . .